Wine is an alcoholic beverage that is obtained from the grape by means of alcoholic fermentation of the obtained must. The metabolic action of yeasts causes fermentation that transforms natural sugars into ethanol and gas. The acids and the sugar that the fruit has are those that carry out the fermentation. However, environmental factors such as...
Wine is an alcoholic beverage that is obtained from the grape by means of alcoholic fermentation of the obtained must. The metabolic action of yeasts causes fermentation that transforms natural sugars into ethanol and gas. The acids and the sugar that the fruit has are those that carry out the fermentation. However, environmental factors such as altitude, climate, temperature and hours of light, among others, also influence. Around 65% of the grapes harvested in the world is used for the production of wine.
The cultivation of grapes for wine occurs to a greater extent in places with a Mediterranean climate, which is why half of the wine production in the world is concentrated in Italy, France and Spain.
Wine is called only the liquid obtained from the alcoholic fermentation of grape juice, without adding any substance.
The science that studies winemaking is called oenology.
Spain's mainstream premium wine region is called denominaciones de origen protegidas (DOP) (similar to the French title), and its wines are regulated in accordance with specific laws and in compliance with the quality requirements of the European Commission Regulation (CE) 753. / 2002. In 2016, the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAPA-Minister of Agriculture of Pesca y Alimentación) updated the usage of "Appellation of Origin" to Appellation of Origin (DOP); the traditional terms of DO can still be used legally on the label, but in the end Will be replaced by DOP.
Spanish wine region classification adopts a very complex hierarchical structure, among which the landmark of origin (denominación de origen protegida) is the mainstream grade, which is equivalent to the French AOC and the Italian DOC. As of 2019, Spain has divided 138 identifiable wine regions according to a certain geographic classification (2 DOCa / DOQ, 68 DO, 7 VC, 19 VP and 42 VT). Spanish DO is actually a subset of the European Union-sponsored QWPSR (Quality Wine Produced in Specific Regions) regulatory regulations (Vino de Calidad producido enregión determinada (VCPRD) in Spanish). Spain officially joined the (at the time) EEC in 1986. The Spanish origin name hierarchy was updated in 2016, as follows:
DOP – denominación de origen protegida (protected designation of origin) is the mid-stream tay column of Spanish wine quality control system. Each area is under the jurisdiction of consejo regulador, and the boundaries of the area, the allowed varieties, the maximum yield, the restrictions on the alcohol strength and other quality standards or production restrictions related to the area are all determined by it. As of 2019, there are 96 types of DOP subdivided into DOCa, DO, VP and VC. The subcategory can be called DOP, or the traditional terms of DOCa, DO, VP and VC can be used.
DOCa – denominación de origen calificada ("qualified appellation of origin") is the highest category in Spanish wine regulations and is only applicable to regions where the price of grapes is above average and quality control is particularly strict. Rioja was the first Spanish region to be granted DOCa status in 1991, followed by Priorat in 2003. Priorat uses the Catalan word DOQ to indicate the appellation of origin. These are the only two areas considered to be "above" the DO state.
DO – denominación de origin, the midstream of Spanish wine quality control system. column. Each area is under the jurisdiction of consejo regulador, and the boundaries of the area, the allowed varieties, the maximum yield, the restrictions on the alcohol strength and other quality standards or production restrictions related to the area are all determined by it.
VP – Vino de pago ("Château wine") is a special term for high-quality, single-château wine (pago is a Spanish term for vineyard terms), and in some cases also has the designation DO or VC or IGP. This category was established in 2003.
VC – vino de Calidad conindicación geográfica ("Quality Wines with Geographical Indications") was established in 2003 together with the Vice President. The VC category is used for wines that do not fully meet the strict standards of the DO category but are higher than the IGP category standards.
IGP – indicación geográficaprotegida ("Protected Geographical Indication"). This is lower than the DOP level and is a wine from a specific location, region or country that has a certain quality, reputation or other characteristics-including the stage of production-basically attributable to its geographic origin, at least one of which occurs Within the defined geographic area. These can use the traditional term "Vino de la Tierra (VT)".
VdM – vino de mesa ("table wine"), all the food at the bottom of the pyramid, all wines from unsorted vineyards, and wines classified by blending. These include cheap jug wines and some expensive wines that have not yet been classified due to innovations beyond traditional production lines.
In 2006, a new "Super Zone" named Viñedos de España was created. This was never approved by the European Union and was abolished in 2011.
Spanish wines map.
Selection of non spanish wines.
French wines. Italian Wines. South African and American wines.
Red wine is a type of wine derived mainly from red grape must, and its related processes can diffuse the pigments contained in the grape skins.
Depending on the aging time that takes place in the barrel and in the bottle, young wines, crianza, reserva or gran reserva can be obtained.
It is also called black wine (English red wine).
White wine is a variety of wines that can vary between straw yellow, greenish yellow or golden yellow. It is produced by alcoholic fermentation of colorless grape skins, which can have a white or black appearance to maintain a transparent yellow color in the final product. There are many types of white wines, mainly from the various strains and production methods used, as well as the residual sugar rate.
White wine is estimated to have been consumed for 2,500 years. It was accompanied by economic development and settled in all countries with a tradition of wine consumption, mainly in Europe, America and Oceania.
The white grapes that mainly produce white wine are green or yellow, which is a very common variety in the world, which is why this wine is produced in many regions of the world. Some varieties are very well known, such as Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc and Riesling. There are also varieties of black grapes, such as Pinot Noir, which are used to make white wine or champagne.
Among many types of white wines, dry white wines are the most common. It is more or less aromatic and acidic, and originates from the complete fermentation of the must. Sweet wines are wines whose fermentation is interrupted before all the sugar in the grapes is converted to alcohol. Sparkling wine, mainly white wine, refers to the gas that the carbon dioxide produced by fermentation dissolves in the wine and turns into gas when the bottle cap is opened, producing a fine foam.
White wine is usually drunk before meals, snacks, desserts or soft drinks. Traditionally it is accompanied by white meat and certain types of cheeses. Its consumption is also usually related to the consumption of fish and shellfish.
Rosé wines have some typical red wine colors, but only enough to make them appear rosy, depending on the grape used and the production technology, their colors range from clear to intense almost purple.
There are three ways to make rosé wine: by bleeding, by contact with the skins, and by blending.
The so-called dessert wine refers to those wines with a sweetness suitable for various desserts. These wines are called pudding wines in the Anglo-Saxon world, especially in Australia, due to their stickiness, they are called "sticky" (sticky). The most famous are the malagueños, Sauternes, and Tokaji Aszú, most of which are usually taken alone after meals.
Types of Fortified wines:
Marqués del Puerto Crianza, vino tinto de D.O.Ca. Rioja. Refrescante mezcla de Tempranillo (90%) y Mazuelo (10%). Envejecido en barricas de roble francés y americano durante 12 meses antes de sellarlo en su botella, donde continuará desarrollándose durante varios meses más.
The San Román and minerals are profound wines that combine power and elegance, have civilized tannins and a dense mouthfeel, with crisp flavors of black fruit. Built to grow in bottle are minimized stabilization processes to ensure maximum respect for the grape and land. Go to 0'75 cl. bottle